The **Excel IF function** uses a logical test and returns two values, one result for TRUE and another for FALSE.

Use the IF function to perform a **logical test** and the **greater than** **logical operator** to check the condition. For example, if the value in cell A1 is greater than 100, the result is **TRUE**; else **FALSE**.

**=IF(A1 > 100, ”High”, ”Low”)**

## How to use the IF Function

We use the IF function to evaluate a logical test (specific condition) and generate two output types for two different purposes (TRUE or FALSE).

### Syntax, Arguments

**The syntax is simple:**

**=IF(logical test, **[value if true], [value if false]**)**

The function uses three arguments: one required and two optional.

**logical_test**: a single value or a logical expression. The result is a TRUE or FALSE that follows the**boolean logic**.**value_if_true**: the result if the**logical_test**evaluates to TRUE (optional argument)**value_if_false**: the result if the logical_test evaluates to FALSE (optional argument)

## IF and Logical operators

**The standalone IF function is effective. However, it is worth combining with other logical functions for extended usability.** In the example below, you can create custom tests if you are using the following logical operators for comparison purposes:

Logical operator | Note | Example |
---|---|---|

= | equal to | A1 = B1 |

> | greater than | A1 > B1 |

>= | greater than or equal to | A1 >= B1 |

< | less than | A1 < B1 |

<= | less than or equal to | A1 <= B1 |

<> | not equal to | A1 <> B1 |

## Using IF with logical functions: AND, OR, NOT

You can create complex criteria by combining the IF function with the AND or OR function. In the first example, we create a formula that returns “Found” when the number in cell B2 is greater than 5 and less than 20. Otherwise, the formula uses the third argument and returns “not found”.

`=IF(AND(B2>5,B2<20,"Found","")`

**Explanation: **First, the AND function checks both criteria. In the case of B2>5 and B2<20, the formula returns with TRUE. IF function will use the result as the first argument and return with **“match”**. Otherwise, the formula returns “**no match**“.

**Here is an IF and OR example**; create a formula using the following criteria. If B2 is equal to 10 or 20, return the “match found” value; else, display “no match”.

`=IF(OR(B2=10,B2=20),"match found","no match")`

**In the third example, we have complex criteria**: If B2 is between 10 and 20, **or** B3 is between 80 and 100, return the message “**match found**“, elsewhere “**no match**“.

`=IF(OR(AND(B2>10,B2<20), AND(B3>80,B2<100),"match found","no match")`

Finally, here is an example with the IF and NOT function. If B2 is NOT “t-shirt”, return B2 * 0.9; otherwise, return B2.

`=IF(NOT(B2="t-shirt"), B2*0.9 ,B2)`

## Nested IF statements

Since we have the **IFS function**, the nested IF solutions seem outdated. You can entwine a maximum of 128 IF functions.

A “nested IF” refers to a formula that contains another IF function. In this case, you can test more conditions in a single formula, and variable outputs are available.

Here is a simple rating example, test cell B2 and return the corresponding value based on the following rules: 1= “bad”, 2 = “poor”, 3 = average, 4 = “good”, 5 = “excellent”

**Check the rating in cell B3:**

`=IF(B3=1,"bad",IF(B3=2,"poor",IF(B3=3,"average",IF(B3=4, "good",IF(B3=5,"excellent")))))`

**Here is the simplified formula using IFS:**

`=IFS(B3=1,"bad",B3=2,"poor",B3=3,"average",B3=4,"good",B3=5,"best")`

**Compare the formula structures; we prefer the IFS function instead of using IF.**

### Use logical test without IF

Because the output is always **TRUE** or **FALSE**, we’ll use a formula without functions in the following example.

=**A1 > 100**

I think no further explanation is necessary. If the price is greater than 100, the result is TRUE. Else the formula returns FALSE.

**Additional resources:**